Looks at causes and symptoms of diverticulosis. Explains what diverticulosis is and how it is treated. Covers painful diverticular disease. Offers home treatment and prevention tips, including eating more dietary fiber.
In diverticulosis, the pouches in the colon wall do not
cause symptoms. Diverticulosis may not be discovered unless symptoms occur,
such as in painful diverticular disease or in
diverticulitis. As many as 80 out of 100 people who have
diverticulosis never get diverticulitis.1 In many
cases, diverticulosis is discovered only when tests are done to find the cause
of a different medical problem or during a screening exam.
What causes diverticulosis?
The reason pouches
(diverticula) form in the colon wall is not completely understood. Doctors
think diverticula form when high pressure inside the colon pushes against weak
spots in the colon wall.
Normally, a diet with adequate fiber
(also called roughage) produces stool that is bulky and can move easily through
the colon. If a diet is low in fiber, the colon must exert more pressure than
usual to move small, hard stool. A low-fiber diet also can increase the time
stool remains in the bowel, adding to the high pressure.
may form when the high pressure pushes against weak spots in the colon where
blood vessels pass through the muscle layer of the bowel wall to supply blood
to the inner wall.
What are the symptoms?
Most people don't have
symptoms. You may have had diverticulosis for years
by the time symptoms occur (if they do). Over time, some people get an
infection in the pouches (diverticulitis). For more information, see the topic
Your doctor may use the term painful diverticular disease. It's likely that painful diverticular disease is caused by irritable bowel syndrome
(IBS). Symptoms include diarrhea and cramping abdominal (belly) pain, with no fever or other
sign of an infection. For information on the symptoms of IBS, see the topic
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).
How is diverticulosis diagnosed?
In many cases,
diverticulosis is discovered only when tests, such as a
barium enema X-ray or a
colonoscopy, are done to find the cause of a different
medical problem or during a screening exam.
How is it treated?
The best way to treat diverticulosis is to avoid constipation. Here are some ideas:
Include fruits, vegetables, beans, and whole grains in your diet each day. These foods are high in fiber.
Drink plenty of fluids, enough so that your urine is light yellow or clear like water.
Get some exercise every day. Try to do moderate activity at least 2½ hours a week. Or try to do vigorous activity at least 1¼ hours a week. It's fine to be active in blocks of 10 minutes or more throughout your day and week.
Take a fiber supplement, such as Citrucel or Metamucil, every day if needed. Start with a small dose and very slowly increase the dose over a month or more.
Schedule time each day for a bowel movement. Having a daily routine may help. Take your time and do not strain when you are having a bowel movement.
This treatment may help reduce the formation of new pouches
(diverticula) and lower the risk for diverticulitis.
Treatment for painful diverticular disease involves adding fiber to the diet and not eating foods that
cause gas, pain, or other symptoms. Treatment is the same as that for irritable
bowel syndrome (IBS), because many people who have this condition also have
IBS. For information on the treatment of IBS, see the topic Irritable Bowel
Can diverticulosis be prevented?
high-fiber diet, getting plenty of fluid, and exercising regularly may help
Other Places To Get Help
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse
2 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3570
This clearinghouse is a service of the U.S. National
Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the
U.S. National Institutes of Health. The clearinghouse answers questions;
develops, reviews, and sends out publications; and coordinates information
resources about digestive diseases. Publications produced by the clearinghouse
are reviewed carefully for scientific accuracy, content, and readability.
Davis BR, Matthews JB (2006). Diverticular disease of the colon. In M Wolfe et al., eds., Therapy of Digestive Disorders, 2nd ed., pp. 855–859. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Other Works Consulted
Travis AC, Blumberg RS (2012). Diverticular disease of the colon. In NJ Greenberger et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endoscopy, 2nd ed., pp. 259–272. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Primary Medical Reviewer
Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer
Jerome B. Simon, MD, FRCPC, FACP - Gastroenterology
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.