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Lupus: Criteria for Diagnosis

Lupus: Criteria for Diagnosis

Topic Overview

The following criteria are used to distinguish lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE) from other autoimmune and rheumatic diseases.

A person with 4 of these 11 conditions can be classified as having lupus. These conditions may be present all at once, or they may appear in succession over a period of time. 1

  • Butterfly ( malar ) rash on cheeks
  • Rash on face, arms, neck, torso (discoid rash)
  • Skin rashes that result from exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity)
  • Mouth or nasal sores ( ulcers ), usually painless
  • Joint swelling, stiffness, pain involving two or more joints ( arthritis )
  • Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs ( pleuritis ) or heart ( pericarditis )
  • Abnormalities in urine, such as increased protein or clumps of red blood cells or kidney cells, called cell casts
  • Nervous system problems, such as seizures or psychosis , without known cause
  • Problems with the blood, such as reduced numbers of red blood cells ( anemia ), platelets, or white blood cells
  • Laboratory tests showing increased autoimmune activity (antibodies against normal tissue)
  • Positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) test

References

Citations

  1. Hahn BH (2008). Systemic lupus erythematosus. In AS Fauci et al., eds., Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2075–2083. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine
Nancy Ann Shadick, MD, MPH - Internal Medicine, Rheumatology
Last Revised May 10, 2012

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