This topic suggests ways to help
prevent illness and accidental injuries in young children. It does not cover
every risk that a child faces, but it does cover many of the most common
hazards and situations that can be dangerous to children ages 2 to 5
What can you expect from your child at this age?
Children in this age range are gaining many new skills, and they feel
more and more independent. They may be curious, want to explore the world
around them, and act without thinking.
At this age, children see everything that happens as it relates to themselves. And they believe that what they wish for or expect to happen can affect what really happens. They overestimate what is
in their control, which contributes to their vulnerability. They are often
unaware of the consequences of their actions. This can lead to dangerous
You can help decrease any dangers by accepting that your child will go through active and
curious phases. Think about what you can do to
avoid safety hazards. If your child is discovering the joys of riding a
tricycle, for example, be sure to make riding in the street off-limits.
You can also find behaviors to teach and model. For example, if you wash your hands before eating, you child will probably also do this.
Remember that no one can watch a child's every move or make a
home 100% safe all the time. Try to find a balance for supervising your
child, taking safety precautions, and allowing your child to explore. Learn all you can about child growth and
development. Doing so can help you learn how to respond to and make a positive impact on how your child behaves.
What can you do to help keep your child safe?
child is gaining in confidence and probably wants to explore. But your child
still needs your close supervision and guidance. You can:
Set up and consistently enforce rules and limits to help your child learn about dangers.
Teach some basic safety rules and precautions. Do this inside and outside the home. For
example, teach your child to always use the car seat and that ovens and
toasters can cause burns. Talk with other caregivers about what problems could arise and how to prevent them.
Practice healthy habits. Protect your child against illness and infection. For example, wash
your hands often, keep toys clean, make sure your child is
immunized, and go to all well-child visits.
Take safety measures around the home.
For example, store poisonous products out of your child's reach, and use safety
covers on all electrical outlets.
How can your stress level affect your child's safety?
Taking care of yourself is a vital part of keeping your child safe. Most
injuries to children happen when parents or caregivers are tired, hungry, or
emotionally drained or are having relationship problems. Other common causes of
family stress include changes in daily routines, moving to a new house, or
expecting another child.
If you feel over-stressed, get help. Talk with your
doctor or your child's doctor, or see a counselor. Find support from family and friends, or join a parenting group.
Call 911 right away if you feel you are about to hurt yourself or your child.
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Healthy Habits for Preventing Infection and Illness
Safe food preparation and precautions
You can prevent most cases of food poisoning by being careful when you prepare and store food. Wash your hands and working surfaces while preparing food, cook foods to safe temperatures, and refrigerate foods promptly. Be especially careful when you cook or heat perishable foods, such as eggs, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, milk, and milk products.
occur at any time of year. These upper respiratory infections (URIs) spread easily. Take extra precautions to help protect your child
against these and other viral and bacterial infections.
Avoid germs and people who are sick. Keep your child away from other people who are obviously ill. And avoid exposing your child to a large crowd, especially when an easily spread illness is going around.
Asks you questions
about your child's health and development and whether you have any
Safety Measures Around the Home
You can help
protect your child from accidents and injuries by taking general safety
measures around your home. Think ahead about what potentially dangerous
situations will attract your child. Supervise your child, but keep in mind that constant hovering over children can limit their experiences
and confidence. Balancing supervision with safety precautions will help prevent
accidents and injuries as well as allow children to explore.
following are common accidents and injuries that can occur around the house,
and some suggestions on how to prevent them.
Preventing falls isn't always easy.
Toddlers and young children often move quickly. Their excitement about their
mobility and their lack of experience can make them unaware of dangers, such as
stairs or hills. Children ages 4 to 5 years anticipate many dangers,
but they may not have the physical skills to avoid accidents. Some ways to help prevent falls are to:
Use sliding gates at both ends of stairways.
Use safety straps in high chairs and changing tables.
Children ages 2 to 5
years can easily choke on everyday objects and food. Your child needs your
supervision even though he or she may be able to eat independently.
Prevent choking. Your child can choke on things smaller
than 1.25 in. (3.2 cm) in
diameter and 2.25 in. (5.7 cm) long. These include button batteries and coins. Keep items like these out of your child's reach.
Learn to recognize
signs of choking. For
example, a child who is choking can't talk, cry, breathe, or cough.
Strangulation and suffocation
household items can strangle a young child. Make sure that loose cords, objects, and
furniture don't pose strangling risks.
Keep cords for blinds and drapes out of
reach. Attach cords to mounts that hold them taut, and wrap them around wall
brackets. Cords with loops should be cut and equipped with safety
Do not use accordion-style gates. Babies and young
children can get their heads trapped in the gate and may
Make sure that furniture doesn't have cutout portions or
other areas that can trap your child's head.
Suffocation is another danger for young children. Teach
your child about suffocation and the importance of a safe play area. Pay
attention to possible suffocation dangers, such as:
Trunks of cars. Keep rear fold-down seats
closed so children aren't able to climb into the trunk from inside the car.
Also, always lock car doors and keep the keys out of sight and out of reach of
Refrigerators and freezers, even those that aren't in
use. If you are storing an old refrigerator or freezer, be sure to take off the
Plastic sacks. Don't let your child play with plastic
sacks. Keep them out of reach. Children may put sacks over their
head during play, which can lead to suffocation.
Prevent poisoning from common household items. Identify any products that could harm your child when eaten or inhaled. Store these products out of your child's reach. If you have a possible
poisoning emergency, call 1-800-222-1222. For more
information, see the topic
Prevent lead poisoning.
Children may chew on contaminated
paint flakes, painted objects, or toys. Homes built before 1978
may still have lead paint on walls and other surfaces.
For more information about lead, see the topic Lead Poisoning.
Prevent household fires by having and maintaining smoke detectors, planning and practicing
escape routes, and teaching your child basic fire safety skills. Children
ages 2 to 5 are often curious about fire. Warn your child about
the dangers of fire, and explain why only grown-ups are allowed to use
Prevent burns. Serious burns are most often caused by heat,
electricity, or chemicals. Prevent burn injuries to your
child by identifying dangers in your home and removing them or blocking your
child's access to them. For more information, see the topic
Enjoy fireworks from a distance.
Fireworks injure children each summer. Children can also get burns from using and being
around firecrackers and sparklers.
Guns and other weapons
Gun and firearm safety measures should be established for all households and especially those
where children live or visit. Keep all guns and firearms in a locked
area, unloaded, and out of reach of children. Also, store knives (even kitchen
knives), swords, and other weapons safely out of reach.
Teach children how to interact with pets. Teach them to never tease animals or bother them while they are eating. Explain that animals can sometimes hurt you. Also be sure to train your own
pets and keep them healthy.
Children younger than 5 years of age die
from drowning more than any other age group.1 Help
prevent drowning by following these tips:
In addition to these precautions, learn first aid and
CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Knowing these
skills can make the difference between life and death in an emergency
situation. For more information, see the topic
Dealing With Emergencies.
Safety Measures Outside the Home
You can't protect
your child from every danger that he or she can possibly encounter outside the home.
But you can equip your child with some basic safety rules and precautions. Let
your child's natural surroundings give you
ideas for general training to help prepare
your child for a variety of situations he or she may face.
avoid accidents, injuries, and unsafe situations outside the home, establish
and review basic rules before outings. Reinforce the rules often. And let other caregivers know about them.
Help prevent child abduction. Teach children
to be cautious of strangers, and teach them how to react when they feel they are
threatened. Remember that most children who
are abducted aren't taken by strangers but rather by a parent, a relative,
a family friend, or an acquaintance.
Keep your child safe on the playground. Make sure all
play equipment is safe, in good repair, and appropriate for your child's age.
Closely supervise all young children while they are playing on any
Before your child visits an unfamiliar home, ask whether
you need to be aware of any dangerous areas, weapons in the home, pets, or
other safety issues. Also, it is always a good idea to see the household
for yourself. Don't be afraid to voice any concerns you have about safety. You
are ultimately responsible for protecting your child.
Choosing child care
Before enrolling your child in
day care, evaluate the environment and talk with the care providers.
Ask questions about their safety guidelines. Identify any hazards, and ask
how they are handled. For more information, see the topic
Choosing Child Care.
Going along for the ride: Exercising caution
parents and caregivers want to share their favorite activities with their young
children. This can help build common interests and appreciation for exercise
and other pursuits. Be sure, though, to recognize the safety issues related to
these activities. Remember that your child's comfort and safety are most
Always use a car seat and have your child ride in the backseat of your car. Car accidents are the leading cause of death and injury
in young children. Follow
basic guidelines established by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). See the AAP website at www.healthychildren.org.
Never leave your child alone in a car. Heat
inside the car and other factors could cause long-lasting injury—or death—in a
matter of minutes. Keeping the car windows down won't protect
your child in hot or warm weather. Other injuries could also occur from a child
getting stuck in the trunk or setting the car in motion.
If your child rides a scooter, watch him or her at all times. Don't let your child ride near traffic. And have your child wear a helmet, knee pads, and elbow pads. Wait until your child is a little older before you teach skateboard safety. It's not safe for children younger than 5 to use skateboards.
Monitor air pollution before outdoor
activities. Children's lungs are especially sensitive to pollution. You can
check your newspaper or local weather station for details about air pollution
Connection between your well-being and child safety
Taking care of yourself is a vital part of keeping your child safe.
Although accidents can occur at any time, many happen during times of excess
stress, such as when:
Parents and children are hungry and tired.
Another baby is
Relationship problems develop.
Major changes in the
routine or environment occur, such as when a child's caregiver changes, when the family is
moving, or when a parent leaves because of military duty.
All parents have times when they feel
exhausted, frustrated, angry, sad, or overwhelmed. This is a
normal part of being human and a parent. But if these feelings become too much
for you to handle alone, keep your child safe by
getting help. For example, when your emotions are too
much for you to handle alone, you may not have the energy or desire to watch
your child as closely as you should. And some parents injure their children when
their emotions cause them to shake, hit, or push them.
Call 911 right away if you feel that you are about to injure yourself or
This American Academy of Pediatrics website has information for parents about childhood issues, from before the child is born to young adulthood. You'll find information on child growth and development, immunizations, safety, health issues, behavior, and much more.
National Safety Council (2009). Water safety. National Safety Council Fact Sheet. Available online: http://www.nsc.org/news_resources/resources/documents/water_safety.pdf.
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.