Discusses hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in people who don't have diabetes. Explains blood sugar (glucose) in the body. Describes symptoms of mild, moderate, and severe hypoglycemia. Covers treatment for sudden episodes and emergency situations.
Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in People Without Diabetes
Is this topic for you?
Hypoglycemia, or low blood
sugar, is most common in people who have
diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with
diabetes and need more information about low blood sugar, see the
You may have briefly felt the effects of low blood sugar when you've gotten really hungry or exercised hard without eating enough. This happens to nearly everyone from time to time. It's easy to correct and usually nothing to worry about.
But low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can also be an ongoing problem. It occurs when the level of sugar in your blood drops too low to give your body energy.
What causes hypoglycemia in people who don't have diabetes?
Ongoing problems with low blood sugar can be caused by:
Diseases of the liver, kidneys, or pancreas.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms can be
different depending on how low your blood sugar level drops.
Mild hypoglycemia can
make you feel hungry or like you want to vomit. You could also feel jittery or
nervous. Your heart may beat fast. You may sweat. Or your skin might turn cold
Moderate hypoglycemia often
makes people feel short-tempered, nervous, afraid, or confused. Your vision may
blur. You could also feel unsteady or have trouble walking.
Severe hypoglycemia can cause you to pass out. You could have
seizures. It could even cause a coma or death.
If you've had hypoglycemia during the night, you may wake
up tired or with a headache. And you may have nightmares. Or you may sweat so
much during the night that your pajamas or sheets are damp when you wake up.
How is hypoglycemia diagnosed?
hypoglycemia, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask you questions about
your health and any medicines you take. You will need blood tests to check your blood sugar levels. Some tests might include not eating (fasting) and watching for symptoms. Other tests might involve eating a meal that could cause symptoms of low blood sugar several hours later. The results of these types of tests can help diagnose the cause.
You may also need tests to look for or rule out health problems that could be affecting your blood sugar levels.
How is it treated?
You can treat a sudden episode of
low blood sugar by eating or drinking something with sugar in it. Some examples of "quick-sugar foods" are fruit juice, soda, milk, raisins, and hard candy. You may also take glucose
tablets. This is usually all
that's needed to get your blood sugar level back up in the short term.
If your hypoglycemia is caused by a health condition, you may need treatment for that condition. There also may be steps you can take to avoid low blood sugar. For example, talk to your doctor about whether changes in your diet, medicines, or exercise habits might help.
What should you do in an emergency?
If mild or
moderate hypoglycemia isn't treated right away, it can turn into severe
hypoglycemia. People with severe hypoglycemia usually pass out. If you pass
out, someone should call 911 right away.
If you have a health problem that tends to cause low blood sugar, it's a good idea to
teach your family, friends, and coworkers about what symptoms to watch for and what to do. You may also want to wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney
Building 31, Room 9A06
31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and
Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) provides information and conducts research on a wide
variety of diseases as well as issues such as weight control and
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