Important It is possible that the main title of the report Apnea, Sleep is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Upper Airway Apnea)
Central Sleep Apnea
Mixed Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by temporary, recurrent interruptions of breathing (respiration) during sleep. Symptoms of this disorder include periodic wakefulness during the night, excessive sleepiness during the day, and loud snoring during sleep. People with this disorder are frequently overweight. Diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea can avoid serious medical problems that may arise as a consequence of oxygen deprivation in untreated individuals. Sleep apnea occurs in three different forms: obstructive, central, and mixed.
An individual's rate of respiration is regulated by group of nerve cells in the brain that control the rhythm of breathing in response to changing oxygen levels in the blood (respiratory drive). In some apneas, the respiratory drive is abnormal. Obstructive sleep apnea (upper airway apnea), the most common form of sleep apnea, results from the blockage of the respiratory passages during sleep. Affected individuals may struggle to breathe and experience increased respiratory effort. Respiratory drive is unaffected in people with this form of sleep apnea but the blockage prevents them from breathing normally. Obstructive apnea is more likely than central apnea to be associated with snorting and arousal from sleep.
In the rare central sleep apnea, the brain does not send adequate signals to the diaphragm and lungs during sleep, resulting in low respiratory drive. In this form of sleep apnea, breathing stops and does not resume until the oxygen-deprived brain finally sends impulses to the diaphragm and lungs. In infants, central sleep apnea is defined as lasting 20 seconds or more.
Mixed sleep apnea is a combination of improper brain signals and obstruction of the respiratory passages. In some cases, sleep apnea is referred to as "Pickwickian Syndrome." In these cases, obstructive apnea is combined with obesity and an abnormally short neck. Infantile sleep apnea affects children less than one year old, and its cause is unknown. (For more information on infantile sleep apnea, see the Related Disorders section of this report.)
National Sleep Foundation 1010 N. Glebe Road Suite 310 Arlington, VA 22201 Tel: (703)243-1697 Email: email@example.com Internet: http://www.sleepfoundation.org
Narcolepsy Network, Inc. 110 Ripple Lane North Kingstown, RI 02852 USA Tel: (401)667-2523 Fax: (401)633-6567 Tel: (888)292-6522 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.narcolepsynetwork.org
American Sleep Association 1610 14th Street NW Suite 300 Rochester, MN 55901 Tel: (507)287-6006 Fax: (507)287-6008 Email: email@example.com Internet: http://www.sleepassociation.org/
American Sleep Apnea Association 6856 Eastern Ave NW Suite 203 Washington, DC 20012 USA Tel: (202)293-3650 Fax: (202)293-3656 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.sleepapnea.org
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke P.O. Box 5801 Bethesda, MD 20824 Tel: (301)496-5751 Fax: (301)402-2186 Tel: (800)352-9424 TDD: (301)468-5981 Email: email@example.com Internet: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/
MUMS National Parent-to-Parent Network 150 Custer Court Green Bay, WI 54301-1243 USA Tel: (920)336-5333 Fax: (920)339-0995 Tel: (877)336-5333 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.netnet.net/mums/
Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center PO Box 8126 Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126 Tel: (301)251-4925 Fax: (301)251-4911 Tel: (888)205-2311 TDD: (888)205-3223 Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/
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