A bone biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of bone is taken
from the body and looked at under a microscope for cancer, infection, or other
bone disorders. The sample of bone can be removed by:
Tell the difference between a noncancerous (benign)
bone mass, such as a bone cyst, and bone cancer, such as
See what is causing a
bone infection (osteomyelitis) or if an infection is
Find the cause of ongoing bone pain.
bone problems seen on an X-ray.
An open bone biopsy allows your doctor to do surgical
treatment at the same time, if needed.
How To Prepare
Before having a bone biopsy, tell your
doctor if you:
Are taking any medicines. If you take medicines every day, ask
your doctor whether you should stop taking these medicines before the
Are allergic to any medicines, such as those used to numb the
Have had bleeding problems
or take blood thinners, such as aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), or warfarin (Coumadin).
or might be pregnant.
Take any herbal remedies. Some of these
remedies may thin the blood.
Getting ready for a bone biopsy changes depending on the
type of biopsy that will be done.
For a closed biopsy (needle biopsy), you do not
need to do anything before the procedure. Right before the procedure, you will
be asked to remove most or all of your clothes. You will be given a gown to
use. You will be awake during the procedure. Arrange to have someone drive you
home because you may get a medicine (sedative) to help you relax.
open biopsy, your doctor will tell you how soon before surgery to stop eating
and drinking. Follow the instructions exactly
about when to stop eating and drinking, or your surgery may be canceled. If
your doctor has instructed you to take your medicines on the day of surgery,
please do so using only a sip of water. You can eat your regular diet after the
procedure. You may need to stay overnight in the hospital after an open biopsy
You will be asked to sign a consent form that says you understand the risks of the test and agree to have it done.
Talk to your doctor about any concerns you
have regarding the need for the biopsy, its risks, how it will be done, or what
the results will mean. To help you understand the importance of this procedure,
fill out the
medical test information form(What is a PDF document?).
How It Is Done
Closed or needle biopsy
A closed or needle biopsy is done in a hospital or clinic by a doctor who specializes in X-ray tests
(radiologist) or by a surgeon who specializes in
conditions of the bone (orthopedic surgeon).
During the biopsy, you lie on an examining table
or firm bed. It is important to lie very still during the entire procedure.
Tell your doctor if you need to move or get more comfortable. You may feel
pressure or discomfort during the biopsy. A needle biopsy takes 15 to 30
Before a needle biopsy, an intravenous (IV)
line may be put into a vein in your arm. You may be given a sedative to help
you relax. You will be awake during the biopsy.
Your doctor uses a
special soap to clean the skin over the bone where the biopsy sample will be
taken. The skin area may need to be shaved. Then your doctor gives you a
numbing medicine (local anesthetic) in your skin.
or surgeon puts a long, thin needle through the skin into the bone. Your doctor
may make a small cut in your skin before putting the needle in so the needle
passes easily. Then your doctor takes out a small amount of bone through the
After a closed or needle biopsy, a small bandage is placed
over the area and pressure is put on the area to stop any bleeding. After
bleeding has stopped, medicine to prevent infection (topical antiseptic
medicine) may be put on the skin. A clean bandage is put on the
You will stay for a short time after the biopsy until your
doctor says it is okay for you to go.
An open biopsy is done in an operating
room by a surgeon. During the biopsy, you lay on an operating bed. An open
biopsy takes 30 to 60 minutes.
Before an open biopsy, you will be given
general anesthesia or medicine to block feeling in the area where the skin cut
is made. You will have an intravenous (IV) line in a vein in your arm for
medicines and fluids. Before making a skin cut, your surgeon uses a special
soap to clean the skin over the bone where the biopsy sample will be taken. The
area may need to be shaved.
The surgeon makes a cut to see the bone
and take out a small piece.
After an open biopsy, the cut is
cleaned and closed with stitches (sutures). A bandage is put on the area. The
stitches are taken out about 14 days after the biopsy.
You may need
to stay overnight in the hospital after an open biopsy is done.
In rare cases a special test of your bone tissue (frozen
section) is done while you are having an open biopsy. The bone taken for a
frozen section is quickly frozen, thinly sliced, and looked at under a
microscope. If cancer cells are seen, your surgeon may take out some more of
the bone during the procedure.
How It Feels
Closed or needle biopsy
You may feel a brief pinch
or sting from the numbing medicine. You may feel pressure or a brief, sharp
pain as the needle enters the bone. You may also feel an aching pain or
pressure when the bone tissue sample is taken out. After the procedure, the
biopsy site may be sore and tender for up to a week. Your doctor will talk to
you about pain medicine.
You will be asleep or the area will be
numb so you will not feel any pain. After the biopsy, you may feel sleepy for
about 2 hours. The biopsy site may be sore and tender for up to a week. Your
doctor will talk to you about pain medicine.
After a bone biopsy
If a closed biopsy is done, you may go
home shortly after the procedure. If you got a sedative, you may need to stay
longer and have someone drive you home.
If an open biopsy is done,
you may need to stay in the hospital overnight. Arrange to have someone drive
you to and from the hospital or clinic.
A bandage will be placed
over the biopsy site. You may be told to keep the biopsy site covered and dry
for 48 hours. A small amount of bleeding from the biopsy site is normal. Ask
your doctor how much drainage to expect.
Problems from a bone biopsy are rare. There is
a very small chance that the biopsy needle may break (fracture) the bone or
injure a nerve, blood vessel, or organ near the biopsy site. Surgery may be
needed to treat the problem.
There is a very small chance for a
skin infection or for the bone to become infected (osteomyelitis) or to not
heal well. In rare cases, the bone may become weak and break (fracture) at a
If you take a blood-thinning medicine (such as aspirin, clopidogrel, or warfarin) or if you
have a bleeding disorder, you may have more chance of bleeding from the biopsy
site. Also, some tumors or bone conditions can cause more bleeding after a
biopsy. Your doctor will talk to you about getting clotting factors before this
biopsy to lower your chance of bleeding.
After the biopsy
Call your doctor immediately if:
The biopsy site continues to bleed.
You have signs of infection. These signs may include:
Increased pain, swelling, redness, or
warmth around the affected area.
Red streaks spreading from the
Drainage of pus from the area.
lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, or groin.
Fever or chills.
A bone biopsy is a procedure in which a
small sample of bone is taken from the body and looked at under a microscope
for cancer, infection, or other bone disorders. It may take several days to get
the results because the bone sample needs to be specially prepared for
Most cancer of the bone
spreads (metastasizes) to the bone from another part of the body, such as the
prostate, or other organs. But bone cancer can also
start in the bone itself (such as osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma).
What Affects the Test
Reasons you may not be able to
have the biopsy or why the results may not be helpful include:
Not being able to lie still during the
Having a condition that affects your
immune system. This may increase your chance for an
infection at the biopsy site.
Not getting a good sample of bone
tissue. A good sample may be hard to get to with a needle.
What To Think About
During a bone biopsy, the doctor
may also take a sample of
bone marrow (bone marrow biopsy). A bone marrow biopsy
is done to check for infection in the bone marrow or to see why the bone marrow
may not be healthy or to check for certain kinds of cancer, such as
lymphoma, or multiple myeloma. To learn more,
see the topic
Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy.
Other Works Consulted
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ (2008). Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures, 5th ed. St. Louis:
Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine
David Bardana, MD, FRCSC - Orthopedic Surgery, Sports Medicine
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.