Sudden pressure on the heart and sudden
difficulty pumping enough blood (called
cardiac tamponade). This can be caused by the weight
and pressure of the fluid buildup if it happens quickly.
Constrictive pericarditis, which can occur when pericarditis comes back or becomes a longer-term problem. The sac around the
heart gets thick and stiff. This makes it harder for the heart to pump blood.
Medicine side effects, including cancer treatments.
In many cases the cause the is not known.
What are the symptoms?
The main symptom is a
sharp pain in the center or left side of your chest. The pain may spread to the shoulder blade. For some people, this pain is dull
instead of sharp. It may be worse when you lie down or take a deep
The pain lasts for hours or days and doesn't get better
when you rest. It's different from a type of chest pain called
angina, which only lasts a short time and usually gets
better with rest.
Other symptoms may include a mild fever,
weakness, feeling very tired, coughing, hiccups, and muscle aches.
Pericarditis usually isn't dangerous, but your chest pain could be
caused by something more serious, like a
heart attack. And getting diagnosed and treated early
can help keep pericarditis from leading to other problems. That’s why you
should call a doctor right away if you have any kind of sudden chest
How is pericarditis diagnosed?
Your doctor will
listen to your heart during a physical exam. He or she will also ask questions
about your medical history, such as whether you've had a recent illness,
radiation treatment for cancer, or tuberculosis.
Your doctor may
want you to have some tests, including an
electrocardiogram, a chest X-ray, and blood
If the chest X-ray shows any fluid buildup, or if you have new or worse symptoms, such as shortness of breath, your doctor may want you to have a test
How is it treated?
If there are no other problems,
pericarditis usually goes away on its own in a few weeks. During this time:
Try aspirin, ibuprofen, or another nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to reduce pain. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe stronger medicine.
Get plenty of rest. Avoid all strenuous activity that has not been approved by your doctor.
Follow your doctor's advice about what problems to watch for, such as shortness of breath or other signs of complications.
Be sure to keep all follow-up appointments with your doctor. If you have complications or the illness gets worse, you may need further treatment. This could include medicines or a procedure to relieve the fluid and pressure around your heart (pericardiocentesis).
Visit the American Heart Association (AHA) website for information on
physical activity, diet, and various heart-related conditions. You can search for information on heart disease and stroke, share information with friends and family, and use tools to help you make heart-healthy goals and plans. Contact the AHA to find your
nearest local or state AHA group. The AHA provides brochures and information
about support groups and community programs, including Mended Hearts, a
nationwide organization whose members visit people with heart problems and
provide information and support.
CardioSmart is an online education and support program that can be your partner in heart health. This website engages, informs, and empowers people to take part in their own care and to work well with their health care teams. It has tools and resources to help you prevent, treat, and/or manage heart diseases.
You can set health and wellness goals and track your progress with online tools. You can track your weight, waist measurement, blood pressure, and activity. You can use calculators to help you find your body mass index (BMI) and check your risk for heart problems. You can search for a cardiologist. And you can find medicine information and prepare for your next appointment. Also, you can join online communities to connect with peers and take heart-healthy challenges.
CardioSmart was designed by cardiovascular professionals at the American College of Cardiology, a nonprofit medical society. Members include doctors, nurses, and surgeons.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
P.O. Box 30105
Bethesda, MD 20824-0105
The U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
(NHLBI) information center offers information and publications about preventing
Diseases affecting the heart and circulation, such as heart
attacks, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, peripheral artery disease, and
heart problems present at birth (congenital heart diseases).
Diseases that affect the lungs, such as asthma, chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, sleep apnea, and
Diseases that affect the blood, such as anemia,
hemochromatosis, hemophilia, thalassemia, and von Willebrand disease.
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.